Atlas and Herakles

The migration of Indo-African genes, words, names, stories, and tech­nolo­gies to Western Europe 3000 - 150 BCE. A new theory based on genetic, ar­chae­o­log­i­cal, his­tor­i­cal, lin­guis­tic, and onomastic evidence.

According to Philostratus, Indians founded sixty cities in sub-Saharan Africa 1500-1100 BCE, and according to Juba of Numidia, there was an Indian colony in West Africa before 50 BCE. According to Cornelius Nepos, an Indian tribe had sailed to Germania to do commerce, and according to Scymnus , the land of the Indians was located west from Sardinia, which would locate Indian colonies into Iberia. The book Atlas and Herakles starts with genetic, archaeological, historical, and linguistic evidence, according to which an Indian civilization founded a colony in Uganda around 3300 BCE and spread to West Africa and Europe 3000–650 BCE. The genetic evidence and argumentation that supports this new India-Africa-Europe theory has been peer reviewed, and a brief summary of the evidence is available in the image below.

India-Africa-Europe theory - brief summary of evidence

The India-Africa-Europe theory was then tested empirically against data that was obtained from and This onomastic research data, which consisted 24 name sets and 1030 names, provided additional evidence concerning the migrations from India to Western Europe around Africa. Out of the studied name sets, the Ethiopian, Ancient West African, Iberian, Etruscan, and Sea People name sets had their likely origin at the Indian Peninsula. This supports the India-Africa-Europe theory, according to which the migrations occurred mainly around Africa by sea routes (see the image below).


In order to avoid exaggerated conclusions based on one synthesized name set, each one of the nine hypotheses of the theory was compared separately to empirical evidence that was collected from genetic, archaeological, historical and linguistic sources (original evidence) and from the names study. The results of this evidence evaluation are shown in the table below.  

Evaluation of the India-Africa-Europe theory

Based on the results, the central hypotheses of the India-Africa-Europe theory seem to be supported by moderate evidence, and all of the 9 hypotheses receive at least tenative support. 

P.S. The India-Africa-Europe theory offers a new framework for interpreting ancient texts that tell about King Atlas of West Africa, of the land of Atlantia in sub-Saharan Africa, or about the island of AtlantisB, which was located at the other side of Africa, within the same meridian as Cartago. It may also help us decide, whether Plato's story of Atlantis was a creative patchwork of Atla* motifs, which he had collected from earlier sources, or whether it was Plato's intent to create a somewhat credible history of an Indo-African civilization, which advanced to the Mediterranean region at the end of the Bronze Age, attacking Greece and Egypt around 1210-1250 BCE. 

Atlanticum, Atlantia, and AtlantisB

Pasi Malmi, Risto Isomäki, Tommaso Iorco, Muhammad Afzal Brohi & Ranajit Pal

A multicultural research group from Finland, Italy, India and Pakistan, led by Phd Pasi Malmi